Tachycardia is a type of arrhythmia characterized by a heart rate of more than 90 beats per minute. A variant of normal tachycardia is considered when physical or emotional stress increases. Pathological tachycardia is a consequence of diseases of the cardiovascular or other systems. It is manifested by a feeling of palpitation, pulsation of blood vessels in the neck, anxiety, dizziness, fainting. Can lead to acute heart failure, myocardial infarction, CHD, and cardiac arrest. In order to avoid complications, use: https://pillintrip.com/medicine/azor-anti-anxiety.
The development of tachycardia is based on increased automatism of the sinus node, which normally sets the pace and rhythm of heart contractions, or ectopic centers of automatism.
A person’s palpitations (palpitations that make the heart beat faster and harder) are not always an indication of a disease. Tachycardia occurs in healthy people during physical exertion, stressful situations and nervous excitability, with a lack of oxygen and high air temperature, under the influence of certain drugs, alcohol, coffee, with a sharp change of body position from horizontal to vertical, etc. Tachycardia in children under 7 years is considered physiological norm.
The appearance of tachycardia in almost healthy people is associated with physiological compensatory mechanisms: sympathetic nervous system activation, release of adrenaline into the blood, leading to an increase in heart rate in response to an external factor. Once the effect of the external factor stops, heart rate gradually returns to normal. However, often tachycardia accompanies a number of pathological conditions.
Classification of tachycardia
Taking into account the causes of heart rate, there are physiological tachycardia, occurring during normal heart operation as an adequate response of the body to certain factors, and pathological, developing at rest due to congenital or acquired cardiac or other pathologies.
Pathological tachycardia is a dangerous symptom, because it leads to a decrease in blood volume and other disorders of intracardiac hemodynamics. If the heart beats too often the ventricles do not have time to fill with blood, cardiac output decreases, blood pressure drops, blood and oxygen flow to organs, including the heart itself, weakens. Prolonged reduction in heart efficiency leads to arrhythmogenic cardiopathy, impaired heart contractility and increased heart volume. Poor blood supply to the heart increases the risk of coronary disease and myocardial infarction.
According to the source that generates electrical impulses in the heart, tachycardia is distinguished:
Sinus tachycardia – develops with increased activity of the sinus (sinoatrial) node, which is the main source of electrical impulses that sets the normal heart rhythm;
Ectopic (paroxysmal) tachycardia, in which the generator of rhythm is outside the sinus node – in the atria (supraventricular) or ventricles (ventricular). Usually occurs in the form of attacks (paroxysms), which begin and stop suddenly, lasting from a few minutes to several days, while the rate of heartbeat remains constantly high.
Sinus tachycardia is characterized by an increase in HR to 120-220 beats per minute, a gradual onset and a regular sinus rhythm.